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Thursday, March 30, 2017

Ptolemy's 48 Constellations

Amazing Astronomy — 2nd-century writer, astronomer, astrologer, geographer, and mathematician Claudius Ptolemy compiled a treatise spelling out over 1,000 major stars and 48 prominent constellations in the night sky. Over 1,000 years later, his Almagest (Almagestum) material was first published in the year 1515 in Venice (Italy), in the Latin language, and by Petrus Lichtenstein. Including the original Greek constellation names, the following is an alphabetical list of Ptolemy's forty-eight constellations:

          ANDROMEDA — Ἀνδρομέδα
          AQUARIUS — Ὑδροχόος (Hydrochoös)
          AQUILA — Ἀετός (Aetos)
          ARA — Θυμιατήριον (Thymiaterion)
          ARGO (present-day CARINA, PUPPIS, and VELA) — Ἀργώ
          ARIES — Κριός (Krios)
          AURIGA — Ἡνίοχος (Heniochos)
          BOÖTES — Βοώτης
          CANCER — Καρκίνος (Karkinos)
          CANIS MAJOR — Κύων (Kyon)
          CANIS MINOR — Προκύων (Prokyon)
          CAPRICORNUS — Αἰγόκερως (Aigokeros)
          CASSIOPEIA — Κασσιέπεια
          CENTAURUS — Κένταυρος
          CEPHEUS — Κηφεύς
          CETUS — Κῆτος
          CORONA AUSTRALIS — Στέφανος νότιος (Stephanos Notios)
          CORONA BOREALIS — Στέφανος (Stephanos)
          CORVUS — Κόραξ (Korax)
          CRATER — Κρατήρ
          CYGNUS — Ὄρνις (Ornis)
          DELPHINUS — Δελφίν (Delphin)
          DRACO — Δράκων (Drakon)
          EQUULEUS — Ἵππου προτομή (Hippou Protome)
          ERIDANUS — Ποταμός (Potamos)
          GEMINI — Δίδυμοι (Didymoi)
          HERCULES — Ἐνγόνασι (Engonasi)
          HYDRA — Ὕδρος (Hydros)
          LEO — Λέων
          LEPUS — Λαγωός (Lagoös)
          LIBRA — Χηλαί (Chelae)
          LUPUS — Θηρίον (Therion)
          LYRA — Λύρα
          OPHIUCHUS — Ὀφιοῦχος
          ORION — Ὠρίων
          PEGASUS — Ἵππος (Hippos)
          PERSEUS — Περσεύς
          PISCES — Ἰχθύες (Ichthyes)
          PISCIS AUSTRINUS — Ἰχθύς νότιος (Ichthys Notios)
          SAGITTA — Ὀιστός (Oistos)
          SAGITTARIUS — Τοξότης (Toxotes)
          SCORPIUS — Σκορπίος
          SERPENS — Ὄφις (Ophis)
          TAURUS — Ταῦρος
          TRIANGULUM — Τρίγωνον (Trigonon)
          URSA MAJOR — Ἄρκτος μεγάλη
          URSA MINOR — Ἄρκτος μικρά
          VIRGO — Παρθένος (Parthenos)

The original 1515-era publication — PDF files may take awhile to load — can be viewed on this Universität Wien (University of Vienna) webpage (↗).

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Blog Background

The background has three Hubble Space Telescope images, which are accessible at this Hubble webpage: Hubblesite.org/categories/images.

— LH 95 is a star-forming region in the Large Magellanic Cloud, Dorado constellation.

— Ant Nebula (also called Menzel 3) is an aptly-named planetary nebula located in the constellation Norma.
— Egg Nebula (also called CL 2688) is a protoplanetary nebula in the constellation Cygnus.

HubbleSite Image Links: LH 95, Ant Nebula, and Egg Nebula